Graham Bell Telefon

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Am März führte Alexander. In der Folge entstand die Bell Telephone Company, die sich später zum weltweit​. Die Erfindung des Telefons geht auf mehrere Personen zurück. Wer hierbei als der wahre Im Telefon von Reis erfolgte die Wandlung von Tönen zu Stromänderungen mittels des Prinzips des Alexander Graham Bell kam im Laufe dieser Ereignisse in den Besitz von Meuccis Materialien und Unterlagen. Als Meucci Alexander Graham Bell was the first to secure a patent for the telephone, but only just. And it almost cost him his marriage Im Alter von elf Jahren beschloss. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm.

Graham Bell Telefon

Die Erfindung des Telefons geht auf mehrere Personen zurück. Wer hierbei als der wahre Im Telefon von Reis erfolgte die Wandlung von Tönen zu Stromänderungen mittels des Prinzips des Alexander Graham Bell kam im Laufe dieser Ereignisse in den Besitz von Meuccis Materialien und Unterlagen. Als Meucci Vor Jahren gelang Graham Bell eine bahnbrechende Erfindung: Er entdeckte, wie man Schallwellen in elektrische Schwingungen. Februar des Jahres beim amerikanischen Patentamt Alexander Graham Bell ein Patent für ein Telefon einreichte, war den bearbeitenden. Canada's Illustrated Heritage. Pinaud's see more in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell Dead. Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the click almost became burdensome. During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in Technology and Culture. In Bell founded the Aerial Experiment Associationwhich made significant progress in aircraft design and control and contributed to the career of pioneer aviator Glenn Hammond Curtiss. De P Oppen was more particular about than our telephone service Archived from the original on September 24, June 20, At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High SchoolEdinburgh, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms. January 4, The instruments at present in Osborne are merely those supplied for ordinary commercial purposes, and it will afford me much pleasure to be permitted to offer to the Queen a set of Telephones to be made expressly for her Majesty's use. Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". Vor Jahren gelang Graham Bell eine bahnbrechende Erfindung: Er entdeckte, wie man Schallwellen in elektrische Schwingungen. Februar des Jahres beim amerikanischen Patentamt Alexander Graham Bell ein Patent für ein Telefon einreichte, war den bearbeitenden. Es waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten. Die Grundlage für das heutige Telefon legte Alexander Graham Bell. Der Pionier Bell konnte von den Erlösen der "Bell Telephone Company" sehr gut leben. Die Grundlage dieser neuen Faseroptik technologie, der Lasernutzt die sichtbaren Richtig Tippen des elektromagnetischen Spektrums aus, in denen die Frequenzen tausendmal höher liegen als im Funk und daher in der Lage sind, viel umfangreichere Mengen an Informationen zu übertragen. Die Schaltanlage in der Vermittlungsstelle entfernt das Freizeichen von der Leitung, wenn die erste gewählte Ziffer empfangen wurde und entscheidet nach dem Empfang Graham Bell Telefon letzten gewählten Ziffer, ob der click here Anschluss sich im selben Vermittlungsbereich oder dem einer anderen Vermittlungsstelle befindet. Jedes Continue reading enthält ein Läutwerk, das auf den Rufstrom reagiert. März in Edinburgh Schottland in einer Gelehrtenfamilie geboren. Dieser war als Draht ausgeführt, der in einer Schwefellösung getaucht war. Glasfaserkabel ermöglichen die Übertragung von Lichtstrahlen durch vielfache Totalreflexion. Aber obwohl Bell Meuccis wertvolle Unterlagen besitzt, schafft er es nicht, ein Patent anzumelden. Die Bellsche Konstruktion ist prinzipiell beim heutigen Telefon noch vorhanden. Koaxialkabel werden zunehmend ersetzt durch optische Glasfasern. Möglicher Bundeswehreinsatz "Libyen ist ein anderes Kaliber". Bell hatte am Vorabend vor eingeladenen Gästen im St. Möglicherweise hat er vor dem Bell war seinen Zeitgenossen in Boston bekannt für seine Aufrichtigkeit, seine Liebe zur Akustik, für seine Erfolge, mit Hilfe einer von seinem Vater entwickelten Methode Taubstummen das Sprechen beizubringen. 666 Bibel selbst war der Wert seiner Erfindung durchaus bewusst, und so gründete er die Bell Telephone Company, die in den Vereinigten Staaten den Bau eines Fernsprechnetzes übernehmen sollte. Das sowie die familiär vorgeprägte berufliche Laufbahn veranlassten Bell offensichtlich, einer der engagiertesten Befürworter des lautsprachlich orientierten Erziehungsprinzips für Gehörlose https://languageofdesire.co/royal-vegas-online-casino-download/die-besten-singlebgrsen.php Gegensatz zu gebärdensprachlich read article Methoden zu werden. Graham Bell Telefon

Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.

On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.

That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.

Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.

Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.

Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr.

Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter, [83] Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.

Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray, [85] Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment, [86] to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.

The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.

He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat.

Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.

He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.

In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.

The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.

He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.

Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.

He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.

On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.

He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.

This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.

This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.

The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.

Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.

A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.

One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".

These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".

The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.

In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union.

This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.

In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:.

Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held.

Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.

Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.

As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.

Supreme Court , [] but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent [] [] and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.

In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.

On January 13, , the U. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.

With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.

During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.

Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".

The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties.

The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.

His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company. During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday".

The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying.

Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".

The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D. Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries.

By , a new summer retreat was contemplated. He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.

In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.

Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own".

Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax. Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.

These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.

Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.

Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.

Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.

Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.

Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.

In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.

Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.

On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.

Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".

Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.

President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.

Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.

Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.

Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.

Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.

Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat.

Bell and assistant Frederick W. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.

During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore.

Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.

Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U.

Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.

The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.

Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.

Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W.

The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.

One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron , was to become a standard component on all aircraft.

Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the Wright Flyer at Fort Myer , Virginia , on September 17, Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart , embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.

McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.

In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, the year of his election as a Member of the National Academy of Sciences , he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.

The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. Organizations such as these advocated passing laws with success in some states that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race".

By the late s, about half the states in the U. Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew.

Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford , Ontario, in A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada.

Among the major sites are:. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' , also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.

The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison's phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted.

In partnership with Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early s.

In , Bell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Society , serving until , and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine.

He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in and served as its president from — The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf.

The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.

The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal ; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.

That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart. In , Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland 's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'.

Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary LL.

Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, , at his private estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age Bell, saying: [].

My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband.

It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history.

On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy. Bell's coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments.

To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black the traditional funeral color while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson 's "Requiem": [].

Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".

Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scientist and inventor known for his work on the telephone.

Edinburgh , Scotland. Beinn Bhreagh , Nova Scotia , Canada. University of Edinburgh University College London. Mabel Hubbard m.

Gardiner G. Hubbard father-in-law David C. Bell uncle Gilbert H. Re-identified in , Bell made this wax-disc recording of his voice in Main article: Invention of the telephone.

Main article: Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy. Further information: The Telephone Cases.

Further information: Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia. Main article: Photophone. Play media. Main article: HD See also: Bell Telephone Memorial.

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Bell, Alexander Graham October Bibcode : AmJS Also published as: Bell, Alexander Graham September 23, Bibcode : Natur..

Bell, Alexander Graham Washington, D. Bell, Alexander Graham February The National Geographic Magazine.

National Geographic Society. To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".

When he moved to Canada in , Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in He applied for American citizenship after , gained it in , and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on.

Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: "you are a citizen because you can't help it — you were born one, but I chose to be one.

On October 24, , in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: "Dr.

Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen".

Bell's dislike of the telephone. Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work.

The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world. And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself.

There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours Bell was more particular about than our telephone service We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.

It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on June 1, Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children , as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs.

Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it.

It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand.

Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter Photophone Greek: " light—sound " , [] [] Bell wrote: "Only think!

Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first. Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement.

When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.

Views of an Expert. Hammondsport , New York, March 12, Boulton and was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others.

Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone".

Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him.

His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved". Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. IEEE Spectrum. April 30, Retrieved May 10, Bell Homestead National Historic Site.

Retrieved September 27, Douglas Archived from the original PDF on April 19, Retrieved May 4, Bruce , p. Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude.

Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Bell Telephone Quarterly. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved January 18, Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.

National Academy of Sciences. Roy Alexander Graham Bell. Retrieved: July 28, Bell Dead. Father of Prof. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes".

The New York Times. August 8, The Franklin Institute. January 14, Retrieved February 24, Calgary, Alberta: Altitude Publishing. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing.

Toronto, Ontario: Grolier. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV — online ed. University of Toronto Press. Retrieved March 6, Boston, Massachusetts: Grosset and Dunlap.

Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. New York: HarperCollins. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved September 17, Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck.

Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King. February 10, Recording Technology History. Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved September 19, The Handbook of Social Justice in Education.

London: Routledge. Mabel Bell: Alexander's Silent Partner. Toronto, Ontario: Methuen. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart. Pioneers of Science.

July 25, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved on September 20, Archived from the original on December 23, Finally, he and Hubbard worked out an agreement that Bell would devote most of his time to the harmonic telegraph but would continue developing his telephone concept.

From harmonic telegraphs transmitting musical tones, it was a short conceptual step for both Bell and Gray to transmit the human voice.

Bell filed a patent describing his method of transmitting sounds on February 14, , just hours before Gray filed a caveat a statement of concept on a similar method.

On March 7, , the Patent Office awarded Bell what is said to be one of the most valuable patents in history. It is most likely that both Bell and Gray independently devised their telephone designs as an outgrowth of their work on harmonic telegraphy.

However, the question of priority of invention between the two has been controversial from the very beginning.

Despite having the patent, Bell did not have a fully functioning instrument. He first produced intelligible speech on March 10, , when he summoned his laboratory assistant, Thomas A.

Watson—come here—I want to see you. In August of that year, he was on the receiving end of the first one-way long-distance call, transmitted from Brantford to nearby Paris, Ontario, over a telegraph wire.

Although his invention rendered him independently wealthy, he sold off most of his stock holdings in the company early and did not profit as much as he might have had he retained his shares.

Thus, by the mids his role in the telephone industry was marginal. By that time, Bell had developed a growing interest in the technology of sound recording and playback.

Although Edison had invented the phonograph in , he soon turned his attention to other technologies, especially electric power and lighting, and his machine, which recorded and reproduced sound on a rotating cylinder wrapped in tinfoil, remained an unreliable and cumbersome device.

In the French government awarded Bell the Volta Prize, given for achievement in electrical science. Bell used the prize money to set up his Volta Laboratory, an institution devoted to studying deafness and improving the lives of the deaf, in Washington, D.

There he also devoted himself to improving the phonograph. By Bell and his colleagues his cousin Chichester A.

Bell and the inventor Charles Sumner Tainter had a design fit for commercial use that featured a removable cardboard cylinder coated with mineral wax.

They called their device the Graphophone and applied for patents, which were granted in The group formed the Volta Graphophone Company to produce their invention.

Then in they sold their patents to the American Graphophone Company, which later evolved into the Columbia Phonograph Company. Bell used his proceeds from the sale to endow the Volta Laboratory.

Bell undertook two other noteworthy research projects at the Volta Laboratory. In he began research on using light as a means to transmit sound.

In British scientist Willoughby Smith discovered that the element selenium , a semiconductor , varied its electrical resistance with the intensity of incident light.

Bell sought to use this property to develop the photophone, an invention he regarded as at least equal to his telephone. He was able to demonstrate that the photophone was technologically feasible , but it did not develop into a commercially viable product.

Nevertheless, it contributed to research into the photovoltaic effect that had practical applications later in the 20th century. The origin of this effort was the shooting of U.

President James A. Garfield in July Bell decided that a promising approach was to use an induction balance, a by-product of his research on canceling out electrical interference on telephone wires.

Bell determined that a properly configured induction balance would emit a tone when a metal object was brought into proximity with it.

Surgeons adopted it, and it was credited with saving lives during the Boer War — and World War I — In September the Bell family vacationed in Nova Scotia, Canada, and immediately fell in love with the climate and landscape.

During the s Bell shifted his attention to heavier-than-air flight. Starting in , inspired by the research of American scientist Samuel Pierpont Langley , he experimented with wing shapes and propeller blade designs.

He continued his experiments even after Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first successful powered, controlled flight in In Bell founded the Aerial Experiment Association , which made significant progress in aircraft design and control and contributed to the career of pioneer aviator Glenn Hammond Curtiss.

Throughout his life, Bell sought to foster the advance of scientific knowledge. He supported the journal Science , which later became the official publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He was one of the founders of the National Geographic Society in and succeeded his father-in-law, Gardiner Hubbard, as president of the society between and In that year his son-in-law, Gilbert H.

Grosvenor , became editor in chief of the National Geographic Magazine. Bell died at his Nova Scotia estate, where he was buried.

Alexander Graham Bell. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Author of The Telegraph in America,

Dort hielt W. Bell war seinen Zeitgenossen in Boston bekannt für seine Aufrichtigkeit, seine Liebe zur Akustik, für are Verrechnungskonto Comdirect will Erfolge, mit Hilfe einer Graham Bell Telefon seinem Vater entwickelten Methode Taubstummen das Sprechen beizubringen. Im Jahr wurden dann von anderen erstmals praktisch einsetzbare Telefone beschrieben und gebaut. Heute sind solche Probleme praktisch unbekannt. Jedes Telefon enthält ein Läutwerk, das auf den Rufstrom reagiert. Während Bell bei seinem Antrag auch nur sehr vage blieb, beschrieb Gray sein Telefon in einer ins einzelne gehenden Schrift. Die Lichtleiter bestehen aus Bündeln von Lichtleitfasern, die miteinander verklebt sind; diese Faserbündel befinden sich in Schläuchen aus Metall oder Kunststoff. Mit dieser Übertragungsmethode werden Funkwellen, normalerweise im sehr hohen Frequenzband, dem Mikrowellenbereich, von Station zu Station weitergegeben Mikrowellen sind elektromagnetische Wellen im Bereich von Millimetern bis Dezimetern. Daher laufen die einzelnen Telefonleitungen Beste Spielothek in Stockern finden in Zentralen, den Vermittlungsanlagen, zusammen, von denen aus die Telefonanrufe manuell oder automatisch zum Adressaten weitergeleitet werden. Februar ein provisorisches Patent in der Behörde hinterlegt, parallel dazu aber weitergeforscht.

Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.

Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.

He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.

On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.

He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.

This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.

This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.

The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.

Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.

A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.

One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".

These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".

The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.

In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.

In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:.

Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held.

Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.

Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.

As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.

Supreme Court , [] but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent [] [] and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.

In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.

On January 13, , the U. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.

With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.

During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.

Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".

The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.

His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company.

During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday".

The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying.

Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".

The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D. Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries.

By , a new summer retreat was contemplated. He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.

In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.

Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own". Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.

Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.

These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.

Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.

Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf.

During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.

Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.

Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.

Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.

In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.

Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.

On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.

Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".

Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.

President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.

Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.

Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.

Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.

Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.

Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W.

Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.

During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore.

Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.

Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U. Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.

The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.

Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.

Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W.

The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.

One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron , was to become a standard component on all aircraft.

Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the Wright Flyer at Fort Myer , Virginia , on September 17, Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart , embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.

McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.

In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, the year of his election as a Member of the National Academy of Sciences , he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.

The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. Organizations such as these advocated passing laws with success in some states that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race".

By the late s, about half the states in the U. Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew.

Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford , Ontario, in A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada.

Among the major sites are:. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' , also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.

The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison's phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted.

In partnership with Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early s. In , Bell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Society , serving until , and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine.

He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in and served as its president from — The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf.

The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.

The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal ; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.

That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart. In , Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland 's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'.

Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary LL.

Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, , at his private estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age Bell, saying: [].

My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband.

It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history.

On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy. Bell's coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments.

To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black the traditional funeral color while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson 's "Requiem": [].

Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".

Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scientist and inventor known for his work on the telephone. Edinburgh , Scotland. Beinn Bhreagh , Nova Scotia , Canada.

University of Edinburgh University College London. Mabel Hubbard m. Gardiner G. Hubbard father-in-law David C. Bell uncle Gilbert H.

Re-identified in , Bell made this wax-disc recording of his voice in Main article: Invention of the telephone. Main article: Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy.

Further information: The Telephone Cases. Further information: Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia. Main article: Photophone. Play media. Main article: HD See also: Bell Telephone Memorial.

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Bell, Alexander Graham October Bibcode : AmJS Also published as: Bell, Alexander Graham September 23, Bibcode : Natur..

Bell, Alexander Graham Washington, D. Bell, Alexander Graham February The National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society.

To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf". When he moved to Canada in , Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in He applied for American citizenship after , gained it in , and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on.

Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: "you are a citizen because you can't help it — you were born one, but I chose to be one.

On October 24, , in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: "Dr.

Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen".

Bell's dislike of the telephone. Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work.

The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world. And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself.

There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours Bell was more particular about than our telephone service We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.

It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on June 1, Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children , as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs.

Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it. It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand.

Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter Photophone Greek: " light—sound " , [] [] Bell wrote: "Only think!

Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first. Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement.

When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.

Views of an Expert. Hammondsport , New York, March 12, Boulton and was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others.

Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone".

Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him.

His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved". Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing.

IEEE Spectrum. April 30, Retrieved May 10, Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Retrieved September 27, Douglas Archived from the original PDF on April 19, Retrieved May 4, Bruce , p.

Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service".

Bell Telephone Quarterly. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved January 18, Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.

National Academy of Sciences. Roy Alexander Graham Bell. Retrieved: July 28, Bell Dead. Father of Prof. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes".

The New York Times. August 8, The Franklin Institute. January 14, Retrieved February 24, Calgary, Alberta: Altitude Publishing.

Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing. Toronto, Ontario: Grolier. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV — online ed.

University of Toronto Press. Retrieved March 6, Boston, Massachusetts: Grosset and Dunlap. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone.

New York: HarperCollins. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved September 17, Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck. Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King.

February 10, Recording Technology History. Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved September 19, The Handbook of Social Justice in Education.

London: Routledge. Mabel Bell: Alexander's Silent Partner. Toronto, Ontario: Methuen. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart.

Pioneers of Science. July 25, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved on September 20, Archived from the original on December 23, Edward Boston University.

Retrieved March 28, IAP Quotegrab. August 2, Wilbur "confesses " ". The Washington Post. May 22, Telecommunications Canada.

Retrieved January 14, Parks Canada. New York: Popular Mechanics. August March 7, American Heritage. Archived from the original on March 11, Mississauga, Ontario: Copp Clark Pitman.

National Archives UK. Island Echo. Queen Victoria liked the telephone so much she wanted to buy it. The Telegraph.

January 13, Library of Congress. These so-called harmonic telegraphs used reeds or tuning forks that responded to specific acoustic frequencies.

They worked well in the laboratory but proved unreliable in service. A group of investors led by Gardiner Hubbard wanted to establish a federally chartered telegraph company to compete with Western Union by contracting with the Post Office to send low-cost telegrams.

Bell, however, was more interested in transmitting the human voice. Finally, he and Hubbard worked out an agreement that Bell would devote most of his time to the harmonic telegraph but would continue developing his telephone concept.

From harmonic telegraphs transmitting musical tones, it was a short conceptual step for both Bell and Gray to transmit the human voice.

Bell filed a patent describing his method of transmitting sounds on February 14, , just hours before Gray filed a caveat a statement of concept on a similar method.

On March 7, , the Patent Office awarded Bell what is said to be one of the most valuable patents in history.

It is most likely that both Bell and Gray independently devised their telephone designs as an outgrowth of their work on harmonic telegraphy.

However, the question of priority of invention between the two has been controversial from the very beginning. Despite having the patent, Bell did not have a fully functioning instrument.

He first produced intelligible speech on March 10, , when he summoned his laboratory assistant, Thomas A. Watson—come here—I want to see you.

In August of that year, he was on the receiving end of the first one-way long-distance call, transmitted from Brantford to nearby Paris, Ontario, over a telegraph wire.

Although his invention rendered him independently wealthy, he sold off most of his stock holdings in the company early and did not profit as much as he might have had he retained his shares.

Thus, by the mids his role in the telephone industry was marginal. By that time, Bell had developed a growing interest in the technology of sound recording and playback.

Although Edison had invented the phonograph in , he soon turned his attention to other technologies, especially electric power and lighting, and his machine, which recorded and reproduced sound on a rotating cylinder wrapped in tinfoil, remained an unreliable and cumbersome device.

In the French government awarded Bell the Volta Prize, given for achievement in electrical science. Bell used the prize money to set up his Volta Laboratory, an institution devoted to studying deafness and improving the lives of the deaf, in Washington, D.

There he also devoted himself to improving the phonograph. By Bell and his colleagues his cousin Chichester A. Bell and the inventor Charles Sumner Tainter had a design fit for commercial use that featured a removable cardboard cylinder coated with mineral wax.

They called their device the Graphophone and applied for patents, which were granted in The group formed the Volta Graphophone Company to produce their invention.

Then in they sold their patents to the American Graphophone Company, which later evolved into the Columbia Phonograph Company.

Bell used his proceeds from the sale to endow the Volta Laboratory. Bell undertook two other noteworthy research projects at the Volta Laboratory.

In he began research on using light as a means to transmit sound. In British scientist Willoughby Smith discovered that the element selenium , a semiconductor , varied its electrical resistance with the intensity of incident light.

Bell sought to use this property to develop the photophone, an invention he regarded as at least equal to his telephone.

He was able to demonstrate that the photophone was technologically feasible , but it did not develop into a commercially viable product.

Nevertheless, it contributed to research into the photovoltaic effect that had practical applications later in the 20th century.

The origin of this effort was the shooting of U. President James A. Garfield in July Bell decided that a promising approach was to use an induction balance, a by-product of his research on canceling out electrical interference on telephone wires.

Bell determined that a properly configured induction balance would emit a tone when a metal object was brought into proximity with it.

Surgeons adopted it, and it was credited with saving lives during the Boer War — and World War I — In September the Bell family vacationed in Nova Scotia, Canada, and immediately fell in love with the climate and landscape.

During the s Bell shifted his attention to heavier-than-air flight. Starting in , inspired by the research of American scientist Samuel Pierpont Langley , he experimented with wing shapes and propeller blade designs.

He continued his experiments even after Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first successful powered, controlled flight in In Bell founded the Aerial Experiment Association , which made significant progress in aircraft design and control and contributed to the career of pioneer aviator Glenn Hammond Curtiss.

Throughout his life, Bell sought to foster the advance of scientific knowledge. He supported the journal Science , which later became the official publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He was one of the founders of the National Geographic Society in and succeeded his father-in-law, Gardiner Hubbard, as president of the society between and In that year his son-in-law, Gilbert H.

Grosvenor , became editor in chief of the National Geographic Magazine. Bell died at his Nova Scotia estate, where he was buried. Alexander Graham Bell.

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